It is not often that an eye surgeon is able to awe a room full of medical students and residents in a busy Ophthalmology clinic. So I’ll take this opportunity to write the story about this this extra-ordinary accomplishment.
Ocular Myasthenia Gravis (OMG) is one of the conditions that an oculoplastic surgeon can correct without surgery or any invasive intervention. It is a very satisfying to treat a patient of OMG provided the diagnosis is accurate. It has the rare distinction of being both under-diagnosed and over-investigated in different settings. Clinical examination is the cornerstone of a diagnosis of OMG. The various fancy but expensive testing can only corroborate a strong clinical suspicion
Eye is surrounded by the Para-nasal sinuses. In children, the sinuses are small and they increase in size as the child grows. Children are vulnerable to sinus infections as a consequence of upper respiratory tract infections reducing the ciliary clearance from the sinuses and fluid stasis. Sinus infections in turn can be dangerous to the eyes as the distance between sinuses and eye is very small in children especially the medial walls of the orbits which is paper thin aptly named- lamina paprycea.
I always remember my mentor’s words while I was closing up during surgery during my fellowship, “You may do the most complicated surgery in the most beautiful way possible but the patient will judge the surgery by the scar you leave behind” This maxim has been drilled into me- so much so that my residents find me being too anal about wound closures. I spend extra time being careful about how I close wounds.
Ptosis can be easily treated with a day care, single sitting surgery and sometimes there need not even be a external skin incision. The surgery is known as conjunctivo-mullerectomy where the ptosis (droopy eyelid) is corrected using an incision on the wet surface of the eyelid.
Entropion is in common language inward turning of the eyelid margin. This causes trichiasis (lash-cornea touch), where the eyelashes are directed inwards toward the globe. This malposition can cause corneal irritation due to constant touch by the lashes.
Once the incision wound had completely healed, it was like he never had a surgery. Even the patient himself couldn’t locate the scar. The is the benefit of a minimally invasive surgery and aesthetically planned surgery. Even though the entire orbital lobe of the lacrimal gland was excised, there was no dry eye in the patient. This is because most of the regular lacrimation is by minor lacrimal glands spread out throughout the conjunctiva (transparent layer on the eyeball).
This young patient had suffered trauma to one of his eyes in childhood and wanted a cosmetic artificial eye which looked just like his other seeing eye. He underwent a customised ocular prosthesis surgery. Needless to say he was very happy with the outcome.
The histopathology of the mass turned out to be characteristic of tissue infected with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. In the sub-continent, tuberculosis (TB) is always a differential even when tests for TB turn out to be negative. Histopathology is gold standard for diagnosing TB. Orbital TB though not always a top clinical diagnosis it is not uncommon.
Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia (OSSN) is a spectrum of pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions of the conjunctival epithelium (transparent coat covering the surface of the eye).